In our November 27th blog post, we discussed an innovative new technology, stapled peptides, for use in targeting intracellular protein-protein interactions. In the example we gave, the target was a transcription factor complex in the Notch pathway. As we stated, protein-protein interactions are deemed to be “undruggable”, since they cannot be readily addressed with small molecule drugs.
Nevertheless, in some cases, small molecules have been discovered that do address key protein-protein interactions, and which may become clinical candidates.
Back in February 2006, Decision Resources published our report, “Protein-Protein Interactions: Are They Now Druggable Targets?” Among the case studies we discussed in that report was one in which researchers were attempting to discover small-molecule agents that targeted the Wnt pathway. The researchers discovered small-molecule agents that, as with the stapled-peptide example we discussed in our previous blog post, targeted a transcription factor complex. As of late 2009, two of these compounds are in preclinical development for treatment of various cancers.
Mutations that mediate deregulation of the Wnt pathway are causative factors in several types of cancer, most notably colorectal cancer, as well as multiple myeloma (MM), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia B-CLL). In the canonical Wnt pathway, soluble extracellular factors that are members of the Wnt family activate the pathway. A complex that includes the protein adenomatous polyplosis coli (APC) is central to the Wnt pathway. When Wnt receptors are not engaged by their ligands, kinases in the APC complex phosphorylate β-catenin, a multifunctional protein that is involved both in signal transduction and in adhesion between cells. Phosphorylation targets β-catenin for degradation.
When Wnt proteins bind to their receptors, the kinase activity of the APC complex is inactivated. This results in the accumulation of β-catenin, which moves into the nucleus. There it binds to proteins of the T cell factor (Tcf) family. β-catenin binding changes Tcf from a transcriptional repressor into a transcriptional activator. Downstream genes controlled by the β-catenin/Tcf complex include the oncogene Myc and other genes that mediate cell proliferation.
In precancerous colonic adenomas or the colorectal cancers that they may evolve into, APC is usually mutated. This results in constitutive stabilization of β-catenin and constitutive activation of Tcf and its downstream genes. In other types of cancer that involve constitutive Wnt pathway activation, β-catenin also becomes stabilized, via other means. This makes the Tcf/β-catenin a tempting target for drug discovery. However, it is a protein-protein interaction, and is thus deemed “undruggable”.
In 2004, A group led by Ramesh Shivdasani (Harvard Medical School, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, and Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston MA), including researchers from the Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research (Cambridge, MA), discovered several small-molecule inhibitors of the interaction between human Tcf4 and human β-catenin.
Dr. Shivdasani’s group, among others, had previously determined crystal structures of Tcf-β-catenin complexes. The interaction between the two proteins occurs over a large surface area. It is the large, and usually hydrophobic, interface between proteins in protein-protein interactions that forms the theoretical basis for the difficulty of addressing these interactions with small molecules. However, there is a small hydrophobic pocket that is critical for binding (as also confirmed by site-specific mutation studies), which might accommodate a small molecule inhibitor.
Therefore, the researchers screened approximately 7,000 purified natural products from public and proprietary libraries using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) assay involving release of a labeled Tcf4 binding fragment from its complex with a β-catenin fragment absorbed to an ELISA plate. Eight compounds were found that gave reproducible, concentration-dependent release of the Tcf4 fragment at less than 10 micromolar concentration. The structures and purity of these compounds (most of which are complex, multi-ringed planar compounds with multiple hydroxy groups) were then determined. The sources of these compounds include fungi, actinomycetes, and a marine sponge.
The researchers performed several additional biochemical assays to confirm the compounds’ specific disruption of the Tcf/β-catenin complex, and also performed cellular assays and an in vivo assay in the Xenopus (frog) embryo to study the activities of these compounds against β-catenin-mediated cellular effects. Each of the eight compounds shows different levels of potency in the different assays used in this study, and the compounds differ from each other in their activities in the different assays.
Two fungal-derived compounds, PKF115-854 and CGP04909, gave the best results in all the assays. It is those compounds that have been tested in preclinical studies as potential oncology drug candidates. In a study published in PNAS in 2007, researchers at the Dana-Farber and at Brigham and Women’s Hospital tested PKF115-584 in human MM cells in vitro and in xenograft models. The compound blocked expression of Wnt target genes, induced cytotoxicity in MM cells in vitro, and inhibited tumor growth and prolonged survival in the xenograft model. In a study in HCC at the Asian Liver Center at Stanford University School of Medicine, PKF115-584, CGP049090, and another of the Shivdasani group’s compounds, PKF118-310, also induced cytotoxicity in human HCC cell lines in vitro, and suppressed tumor growth and induced apoptosis in tumor cells in a human HCC xenograft model. Finally, in an abstract presented at the American Society of Hematology (ASH) meeting in December 2009, researchers at the Novartis Institute for Biomedical Research in Basel and their academic collaborators presented data that showed that CGP04090 and PKF115-584 potently inhibited the survival of primary human B-CLL cells in vitro and in vivo. In all three cases, the compounds showed no significant cytotoxicty against normal cells.
In the conclusion of the ASH meeting abstract, the authors stated that further investigations are warranted to determine the feasibility of testing these compounds in human clinical trials.
Many medicinal chemists remain skeptical about the ability of researchers to develop small-molecule drugs that target protein-protein interactions, which have satisfactory pharmacokinetics and can advance through clinical trials and reach the market. However, at least one nonpeptide small-molecule compound that targets a protein-protein interaction, the thrombopoietin receptor agonist eltrombopag (Ligand/GSK’s Promacta), has reached the market. (The FDA approved it in November 2008.) Several other small-molecule drugs that target protein-protein interactions are in clinical development. And Cambridge Healthtech Institute will be sponsoring a conference on this subject, which is scheduled for April 2010. This conference is in its third year. Thus, as also shown by the development of stapled peptides, there is renewed interest in discovering and developing drugs that address these “hard targets”.